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Monday, July 13, 2020 | History

2 edition of Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers found in the catalog.

Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers

Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers

semi-annual progress report, period, 10-31-91 - 3-31-92

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  • 33 Currently reading

Published by Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Dept., City College of New York, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Technical Information Service, distributor in New York, N.Y, [Washington, DC, Springfield, Va .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Chromium.,
  • Tunable lasers.

  • Edition Notes

    Other titlesTetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser active ion for tunable solid-state lasers.
    Statementprincipal investigator, Robert R. Alfano ... [et al.].
    Series[NASA contractor report] -- NASA CR-194529.
    ContributionsAlfano, R. R., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
    The Physical Object
    FormatMicroform
    Pagination1 v.
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14703659M

    1. Introduction. Ceramics of yttrium aluminium garnet (Y 3 Al 5 O 12) doped with tetravalent chromium (Cr 4+:YAG) are solid-state laser materials used as saturable absorbers for the mm laser emission,,,,,, moreover, they are employed as active elements of tunable mid-IR lasers in the spectral range of – µm,,,.. The YAG crystal belongs to the cubic space group Ia3d, with Cited by: 8. Chromium Toxicity and its Health Hazards. Chromium is a toxic heavy metal which is found in environment in different oxidation states ranging from -2 to +6. Mechanisms of chromium toxicity.

    Tetravalent chromium may be the most potent species since it causes DNA breaks and somatic recombination, but not apoptosis. Upon further failure of apoptosis and senescence/DNA-repair, damaged cells may become immortal with loss-of-heterozygosity and genetic by: Valence refers to the oxidation state of an atom present in a compound. For example, * in chromium(III) chloride [math]CrCl_{3}[/math], chromium has an oxidation state of +3 (trivalent) due to the fact that chlorine has an ionic charge of -1, an.

    Get this from a library! Chromium: its physicochemical behavior and petrologic significance: papers from a Carnegie Institution of Washington conference, Geophysical Laboratory. [T N Irvine; Carnegie Institution of Washington. Geophysical Laboratory.;] -- Chromium: Its Physicochemical Behavior and Petrologic Significance. Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating), often referred to simply as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object. The chromed layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, ease cleaning procedures, or increase surface hardness. Sometimes, a less expensive imitator of chrome may be used for aesthetic purposes.


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Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers Download PDF EPUB FB2

Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Vol Hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) is a common occupational hazard, an environmental pollutant, and a recognized human carcinogen. When exposed to Cr[VI], cells rapidly internalize this compound where it is metabolized to Cr[III]. Byproducts of Cr[VI] metabolism Tetravalent chromium book unstable intermediates Cr[V] and Cr[IV].Author: Tiina Anttinen-Klemetti, Pertti Koivisto, Jarkko Tornaeus, Antti Hesso, Rhoderick Elder, Kimmo Pelto.

Tetravalent chromium (Cr⁴) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers: semi-annual progress report, period, Author: Robert R Alfano ; United States.

"Tetravalent Chromium (Cr 4+) as Laser-Active Ion for Tunable Solid-State Lasers": 1. Numerical modeling of the four mirror astigmatically compensated, Z-fold cavity was performed.

The simulation revealed several design parameters to be used for the construction of a femtosecond forsterite laser. Tetravalent Chromium (Cr 4+) as Laser-Active Ion for Tunable Solid-State Lasers / /o# A.

Seas, V. Petri_:evi6, and R. Alfano SEMI-ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Prof. Robert R.

Alfano Period Covered: 10/31/91 - 3/31/92 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers Physics Department, Room J City College of New York. We report on the anion substitution and pressure effects on the layered compound 1T-CrSe 2 with unusual-valent chromium. Owing to the competition between the orbital degrees of freedom and the valence instability of Cr 4+, the systems of Cr(Se 1− x S x) 2 and Cr(Se 1− y Te y) 2 exhibit several types of phase transition.

As well as the parent compound CrSe 2, Te-substituted samples Tetravalent chromium book Author: Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ueda, Chishiro Michioka, Kazuyoshi Yoshimura. The book closes with discussions on halogen chemistry of actinides and halogeno metal carbonyls and related compounds.

Covered areas include trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent, and hexavalent actinides, and structures and reactions of halogeno metal Edition: 1.

Reaction of CrCl3(THF)3 with 3 equiv of R−M [R = Me3CCH2 (a), Me3SiCH2 (b)] afforded either the previously reported tetravalent homoleptic R4Cr (1a, b) [M = MgCl] or the unprecedented divalent and tetranuclear homoleptic [R2Cr]4 (2b) [M = Li].

Both types of compounds display a remarkable chemical inertness toward proton transfer agents but readily react with by: The Curie constant per gramatom chromium varies from forx = 0 to 186 for x = 1 in the mixed crystal series CuCr Rh −x Sn x Se is interpreted as a transition from tetravalent to trivalent chromium.

The ferromagnetic ordering occurring for x = 0 is Cited by: The LactMed® database contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed. It includes information on the levels of such substances in breast milk and infant blood, and the possible adverse effects in the nursing infant.

Suggested therapeutic alternatives to those drugs are provided, where appropriate. All data are derived from the scientific. The simultaneous recovery of trivalent and tetravalent chromium ions through charged ion-exchange membranes by using three detachable cells was tested at different current densities.

The effect of mono- and divalent valence ions corresponding to trivalent and hexavalent chromium ions in the feed phase was by: Tetravalent chromium (Cr⁴) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers: semi-annual progress report, period, 10/31//31/93 Author: A Seas ; ́ V Petričevic ; Robert R Alfano ; United States.

COVID Resources. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this ’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus.

Reaction of CrCl 3 (THF) 3 with 3 equiv of R−M [R = Me 3 CCH 2 (a), Me 3 SiCH 2 (b)] afforded either the previously reported tetravalent homoleptic R 4 Cr (1a, b) [M = MgCl] or the unprecedented divalent and tetranuclear homoleptic [R 2 Cr] 4 (2b) [M = Li].Both types of compounds display a remarkable chemical inertness toward proton transfer agents but readily react with by: Chromium, Hexavalent DOC USEPA1 1,5-Diphenylcarbohydrazide Method 2 Method to mg/L Cr 6+ (spectrophotometers) to mg/L Cr6+ (colorimeters) Powder Pillows Scope and application: For water and wastewater; USEPA accepted for reporting for wastewater analysis.3 1 Accepted USEPA and Standard Method Cr B.

2 Adapted from Standard Methods. Cr Chromium Cr(III) Trivalent chromium Cr(IV) Tetravalent chromium Cr(V) Pentavalent chromium Cr(VI) Hexavalent chromium Cu Copper F Fluorine H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid HNO 3 Nitric acid NaF Sodium fluoride O Oxygen Zn Zinc Zr ZirconiumFile Size: 5MB.

trivalent chromium. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trivalent chromium (III). In Section 6, EPA has characterized its overall confidence in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of hazard and dose response. Matters File Size: KB.

Handbook of Sustainable Polymers book. Structure and Chemistry. Edited By Vijay Kumar Thakur, Manju Kumari Thakur. Edition 1st Edition.

First Published eBook Published 27 April and tetravalent chromium species, gh the synthesis of aldehydes, ketones, and acids as carbonyl groups by oxidation of organic Cited by: 1.

The chemical and physical properties of CrO 2 and tetravalent chromium oxide derivatives. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences7 (1), DOI: /Cited by:   Chromium is an essential trace mineral that plays an important role in helping insulin regulate blood glucose.

May help maintain healthy blood sugar levels already within a normal range. Chromium is a component of a number of enzymes that release energy from cells and is required for proper receptor functioning necessary for nutrient metabolism /5(4). Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is the chromium in any chemical compound that contains the element in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent).Virtually all chromium ore is processed via hexavalent chromium, specifically the salt sodium imatelytonnes (, lb) of hexavalent chromium were produced in.

The concept of valence was developed in the second half of the 19th century and helped successfully explain the molecular structure of inorganic and organic compounds.

The quest for the underlying causes of valence led to the modern theories of chemical bonding, including the cubical atom (), Lewis structures (), valence bond theory (), molecular orbitals (), valence shell.On the nature of synthetic blue diopside crystals: the stabilization of tetravalent chromium Download the Scanned PDF: Henry D.

Schreiber Mechanisms of transformation and twinning in gillespite at high pressure Download the Scanned PDF: Robert M. Hazen Books Help Wanteds Advertise on this site FORUM current topics.

60, Q&A topics -- Education, Aloha, & Fun topic Troubles with trivalent chromium precipitation Hello all Usually I work with hexavalent chrome wastewater. The wastewater is provided by a de-tanning process and the final slurry is a mix among chrome and little bit of.